This is a list of some of the research studies and other resources that cover aspects of using computer-assisted therapies. Research related to a specific product is also listed under each product page.  Some of these articles may require payment or subscription to view the full article. If you are aware of other relevant material, please send them to us.

Cognitive Training and Remediation
Mood and Anxiety Disorders


Bell, M., Bryson, G., Greig, T., Corcoran, C. & Wexler, B.E. (2001). Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with work therapy: Effects on neuropsychological test performance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 763-768.

Bowie, C. R., McGurk, S. R., Mausbach, B., Patterson, T. L., & Harvey, P. D. (2012). Combined cognitive remediation and functional skills training for schizophrenia: Effects on cognition, functional competence, and real-world behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry,169(7), 710-718

Brehmer, Y., Westerberg, H., & Bäckman, L. (2012). Working-memory training in younger and older adults: Training gains, transfer, and maintenance. Frontiers In Human Neuroscience, 6. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00063

Burda, P.C., Starkey, T.W., Dominguez, F. & Vera, V. (1994). Computer assisted cognitive rehabilitation of chronic psychiatric inpatients. Computers in Human Behavior, 10(3), 359-368.

Croisile, B., Miner, D., Bélier, S., Noir, M., & Tarpin-Bernard, F. (2008). Online cognitive training improves cognitive performance. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23(6), 704.
Eack, S. M. (2012). Cognitive Remediation: A New Generation of Psychosocial Interventions for People with Schizophrenia. Social Work,57(3), 235-246. doi:10.1093/sw/sws008

Eack, S. M., Greenwald, D. P., Hogarty, S. S., & Keshavan, M. S. (2010). One-year durability of the effects of cognitive enhancement therapy on functional outcome in early schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 120(1-3), 210-216. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2010.03.042

Eack, S. M., Hogarty, G. E., Greenwald, D. P., Hogarty, S. S., & Keshavan, M. S. (2011). Effects of cognitive enhancement therapy on employment outcomes in early schizophrenia: Results from a 2-year randomized trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 21(1), 32-42. doi:10.1177/1049731509355812

Eack, S. M., Pogue-Geile, M. F., Greenwald, D. P., Hogarty, S. S., & Keshavan, M. S. (2011). Mechanisms of functional improvement in a 2-year trial of cognitive enhancement therapy for early schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 41(6), 1253-1261. doi:10.1017/S0033291710001765

Finn, M., & McDonald, S. (2011). Computerised cognitive training for older persons with mild cognitive impairment: A pilot study using a randomised controlled trial design. Brain Impairment, 12(3), 187-199. doi:10.1375/brim.12.3.187

Fisher, M., Holland, C., Merzenich, M. M., & Vinogradov, S. (2009). Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(7), 805-811. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08050757

Gottlieb, J. D., Romeo, K. H., Penn, D. L., Mueser, K. T., & Chiko, B. P. (2013). Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for auditory hallucinations in persons with psychosis: A pilot study. Schizophrenia Research, 145(1), 82-87. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2013.01.002

Hogarty, G.E. & Flesher, S. (1999). Practice principles of cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 25(4), 693-708.

Hogarty, G.E., Flesher, S., Ulrich, R., Carter, M., Greenwald, D., Pogue-Geile, M., Kechavan, M., Cooley, S., DiBarry, A. L., Garrett, A., Parepally, H., & Zoretich, R. (2004). Cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia: Effects of a 2-year randomized trial on cognitive and behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(9), 866-876.

Johansson, B. & Tornmalm, M. (2012). Working memory training for patients with acquired brain injury: effects in daily life. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 19(2), 176-183. doi: 10.3109/11038128.2011.603352

Kesler, S. R., Sheau, K., Koovakkattu, D., & Reiss, A. L. (2011). Changes in frontal-parietal activation and math skills performance following adaptive number sense training: Preliminary results from a pilot study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 21(4), 433-454.

Kurtz, M.M. (2003). NeuroCognitive Rehabilitation for Schizophrenia. Current Psychiatry Reports, 5(4), 303-310., M.M. (2003). NeuroCognitive Rehabilitation for Schizophrenia. Current Psychiatry Reports, 5(4), 303-310.

Lebowitz, M.S., Dams-O’Connor, K., Cantor, J.B. (2012). Feasibility of computerized brain plasticity-based cognitive training after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 49(10), 1547-1556.

Lewandowski, K. E., Eack, S. M., Hogarty, S. S., Greenwald, D. P., & Keshavan, M. S. (2011). Is cognitive enhancement therapy equally effective for patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder?. Schizophrenia Research, 125(2-3), 291-294. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2010.11.017

Lindenmayer, J.P., McGurk, S.R., Khan, A., Kaushik, S., Thanju, A., Hoffman, L., Valdez, G., Wance, D., Herrmann, E. (2012). Improving social cognition in schizophrenia: a pilot intervention combining computerized social cognition training with cognitive remediation. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbs120

Palmier-Claus, J.E., Ainsworth, J., Machin, M., Barrowclough, C., Dunn, G., Barkus, E., Rogers, A., Wykes, T., Kapur, S., Buchan, I., Salter, E., Lewis, S.W. (2012). The feasibility and validity of ambulatory self-report of psychotic symptoms using a smartphone software application. BMC Psychiatry, 12, 172. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-12-172

Pilarc, M. J. (2000). Use of PSS CogRehab to treat psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 18(1), 8-10.
Popov, T., Jordanov, T., Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Merzenich, M. M., & Miller, G. A. (2011). Specific cognitive training normalizes auditory sensory gating in schizophrenia: A randomized trial. Biological Psychiatry, 69(5), 465-471. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.028

Rauchensteiner, S., Kawohl, W., Ozgurdal, S., Littmann, E., Gudlowski, Y., Witthaus, H., & … Juckel, G. (2011). Test-performance after cognitive training in persons at risk mental state of schizophrenia and patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 185(3), 334-339. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.09.003

Sartory, G., Zorn, C., Groetzinger, G., & Windgassen, K. (2005). Computerized cognitive remediation improves verbal learning and processing speed in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 75(2-3), 219-223. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.10.004

Smith, G., Housen, P., Yaffe, K., Ruff, R., Kennison, R., Mahncke, H., & Zelinski, E. (2009). A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study. Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society, 57(4), 594-603. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02167.x

Cognitive Training and Remediation

Brehmer, Y., Westerberg, H., & Bäckman, L. (2012). Working-memory training in younger and older adults: Training gains, transfer, and maintenance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience6. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00063

Elgamal, S., McKinnon, M. C., Ramakrishnan, K., Joffe, R. T., & MacQueen, G. (2007). Successful computer-assisted cognitive remediation therapy in patients with unipolar depression: A proof of principle study. Psychological Medicine: A Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 37(9), 1229-1238. doi:10.1017/S0033291707001110

Gordon, E., Palmer, D.M., Liu, H., Rekshan, W., & DeVarney, S. (2013). Online cognitive brain training associated with measurable improvements in cognition and emotional well-being. Technology & Innovation, 15(1), 53-62. doi: 10.3727/194982413X13608676060574

Kurtz, M. M. (2012). Cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: Current status, biological correlates and predictors of response. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics12(7), 813-821. doi:10.1586/ern.12.71

Mayas, J., Parmentier, F., Andrés, P., & Ballesteros, S. (2014). Plasticity of attentional functions in older adults after non-action video game training: a randomized controlled trial. Plos One9(3), e92269. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092269

McGurk, S. R., Twamley, E. W., Sitzer, D. I., McHugo, G. J., & Mueser, K. T. (2007). A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry164(12), 1791-1802. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07060906

Preiss, M., Shatil, E., Čermáková, R., Cimermanová, D., & Ram, I. (2013). Personalized cognitive training in unipolar and bipolar disorder: A study of cognitive functioning. Frontiers In Human Neuroscience7

Wykes, T., Huddy, V., Cellard, C., McGurk, S. R., & Czobor, P. (2011). A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: Methodology and effect sizes. The American Journal of Psychiatry168(5), 472-485. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10060855

Mood and anxiety disorders

Cavanagh, K., Shapiro, D., Van Den Berg, S., Swain, S., Barkham, M., & Proudfoot, J. (2006). The effectiveness of computerized cognitive behavioural therapy in routine care. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(Part 4), 499-514.

Christensen, H., Griffiths, K., & Jorm, A. (2004). Delivering interventions for depression by using the internet: randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 328(7434), 265.

Coulon, S. M., Monroe, C. M., & West, D. S. (2016). A Systematic, Multi-domain Review of Mobile Smartphone Apps for Evidence-Based Stress Management. Am J Prev Med, 51(1), 95-105. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2016.01.026

Farvolden, P., Denisoff, E., Selby, P., Bagby, R.M., & Rudy, L. (2005). Usage and longitudinal effectiveness of a Web-based self-help cognitive behavioral therapy program for panic disorder. Journal of Internet Medical Research, 7(1), e7.

Gaynes, B. N., DeVeaugh-Geiss, J., Weir, S., Gu, H., MacPherson, C., Schulberg, H. C., & … Rubinow, D. R. (2010). Feasibility and diagnostic validity of the M-3 checklist: A brief, self-rated screen for depressive, bipolar, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders in primary care. Annals of Family Medicine8(2), 160-169. doi:10.1370/afm.1092

Hayward, L., MacGregor, A. D., Peck, D. F., & Wilkes, P. (2007). The feasibility and effectiveness of computer-guided CBT (Fearfighter) in a rural area. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35(4), 409-419. doi:10.1017/S1352465807003670

Huguet, A., Rao, S., McGrath, P. J., Wozney, L., Wheaton, M., Conrod, J., & Rozario, S. (2016). A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression. PLoS One, 11(5), e0154248. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.015424

Kuhn, E., Eftekhari, A., Hoffman, J.E., Crowley, J.J., Ramsey, K.M., Reger, G.M., & Ruzek, J.I. (2014). Clinician Perceptions of Using a Smartphone App with Prolonged Exposure Therapy. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, (In press). doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0532-2

Kuhn, E., Greene, C., Hoffman J., Nguyen, T., Wald, L., Schmidt, J.,…Ruzek, J. (2014). Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms. Military Medicine, 179(1), 12-18. Doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00271

Learmonth, D., & Rai, S. (2008). Taking computerized CBT beyond primary care. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(Part 1), 111-118.

MacGregor, A. D., Hayward, L., Peck, D. F., & Wilkes, P. (2009). Empirically grounded clinical interventions: Clients’ and referrers’ perceptions of computer-guided CBT (FearFighter). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(1), 1-9. doi:10.1017/S135246580800492X

Mackinnon, A., Griffiths, K. M., & Christensen, H. (2008). Comparative randomised trial of online cognitive-behavioural therapy and an information website for depression: 12-month outcomes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192(2), 130-134. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.106.032078

McCrone, P., Marks, I. M., Mataix-Cols, D., Kenwright, M., & McDonough, M. (2009). Computer-aided self-exposure therapy for phobia/panic disorder: A pilot economic evaluation. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38(2), 91-99. doi:10.1080/16506070802561074

McMurchie, W., Macleod, F., Power, K., Laidlaw, K., & Prentice, N. (2013). Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety with older people: A pilot study to examine patient acceptability and treatment outcome. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(11), 1147-1156.

Mewton, L., Wong, N., & Andrews, G. (2012). The effectiveness of internet cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in clinical practice. Depression and Anxiety, 29(10), 843-849. doi:10.1002/da.21995

Proudfoot, J., Goldberg, D., Mann, A., Everitt, B., Marks, I. & Gray, J. (2003a). Computerized, interactive, multimedia cognitive behavioural therapy reduces anxiety and depression in general practice: a randomised controlled trial, Psychological Medicine, 33, 217-227.

Renton T, Tang H, Ennis N, et al. Web-Based Intervention Programs for Depression: A Scoping Review and Evaluation. Eysenbach G, ed. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2014;16(9):e209. doi:10.2196/jmir.3147.

Robinson, E., Titov, N., Andrews, G., McIntyre, K., Schwencke, G., & Solley, K. (2010). Internet treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial comparing clinician vs. technician assistance. Plos ONE, 5(6), e10942.

Schneider, A. J., Mataix-Cols, D., Marks, I. M., & Bachofen, M. (2005). Internet-Guided Self-Help with or without Exposure Therapy for Phobic and Panic Disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(3), 154-164. doi:10.1159/000084000

Schneider, J., Sarrami Foroushani, P., Grime, P., & Thornicroft, G. (2014). Acceptability of online self-help to people with depression: users’ views of MoodGYM versus informational websites. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(3), e90. doi:10.2196/jmir.2871

Steinmetz SE, Benight CC, Bishop SL & James LE. (2012). My Disaster Recovery: a pilot randomized controlled trial of an Internet intervention. Anxiety Stress Coping, 25(5), 593–600. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2011.604869

Titov, N., Andrews, G., Robinson, E., Schwencke, G., Johnston, L., Solley, K., & Choi, I. (2009). Clinician-assisted Internet-based treatment is effective for generalized anxiety disorder: randomized controlled trial. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43(10), 905-912.

Wang, Z., Wang, J. & Maercker, A. (2013). Chinese My Trauma Recovery, a Web-based intervention for traumatized persons in two parallel samples: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(9). 10.2196/jmir.2690

Wims, E., Titov, N., Andrews, G., & Choi, I. (2010). Clinician-assisted Internet-based treatment is effective for panic: A randomized controlled trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry44(7), 599-607. doi:10.3109/00048671003614171


Eells, T. D., Barrett, M. S., Wright, J. H., & Thase, M. (2014). Computer-assisted cognitive–behavior therapy for depression. Psychotherapy, 51(2), 191-197. doi:10.1037/a0032406